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Sunday, July 29, 2012

Graystone Ballroom and Motown Records, Detroit, Michigan

Motown Records
The 1976 Detroit Urban Conservation Project provides us a window into two iconic Detroit buildings just a few blocks apart from one another on Woodward Avenue. The first is what was popularly called the Motown Building just north of I-75 and Woodward. This building inauspiciously feel in 2005 just prior to the Super Bowl. A bit further north of this was the Graystone Ballroom. This building was demolished too around 1980. The Graystone Ballroom once hosted Duke Ellington and was among the most popular of dance halls in the country. Distinguished by a substantial dance floor with an open and uninterrupted span, this was among the liveliest of spots along Woodward Ave for decades.

Motown Records in 2001, prior to demolition

Both Motown Records and the Graystone Ballroom were targeted for use as museums at different times. Regrettably, neither of those proposals transpired to honor the Jazz and Motown heritage of Detroit respectively. Had either or both come to fruition, they might have helped to cement Detroit's musical legacy. Instead, this great musical legacy stands without a dedicated visible landmark downtown.

Graystone Ballroom, 1976

Graystone Ballroom in background as nearby buildings are demolished, 1976.
Today the Motown Records building has given way to a parking lot. In the 2000's a McDonald's restaurant was built on or very near the site of the Graystone Ballroom. Of the more than 25 buildings present on the block around 1950, fewer than 6 remained in 2012.


Detroit, Michigan, 1950 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, vol 2, Sheet 77
Buildings demolished between 1950 and 2012.


Saturday, July 21, 2012

Integrating Historic Preservation and Community Development in Areas of Concentrated Poverty


While the number of people living in concentrated poverty in the United States has decreased between 1990 and 2000, the land area considered severely distressed (where 40% or more of residents live below the poverty level) has increased. This situation poses unique challenges for what to do with the people but also the places that have been left behind in an increasingly information-based global economy.

Community development – defined as “a group of people in a community reaching a decision to initiate a social action process…” (Christenson, 1980) – has promoted affordable housing, commercial development, crime prevention, and youth programs among other things. But it is argued that community development practitioners have not taken full advantage of the history and culture of areas, thus overlooking valuable tools and partnerships to assist in development efforts.

In recent years historic preservation has been suggested as an integral component for community revitalization, especially renewal of our older neighborhoods. Preservationists themselves have actively made an effort to become involved in community revitalization activities. The question then is how to take preservationists interest in community development and through a “social invention” to use historic preservation and the awareness of the importance of history and culture to buttress and reinforce community development efforts in severely distressed areas.

These ideas are explored by reflecting upon a case study of the Ransom Place Historic District in Indianapolis, Indiana – a traditionally African-American neighborhood that throughout the 1990’s sought to use the African-American heritage of the neighborhood to stimulate renewal. The efforts of an African-American preservation visionary Jean Spears are described and analyzed, as well as the good work of those who supported her including J. Reid Williamson, Jr., President of the Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana (HLFI); Suzanne T. Rollins, also from HLFI; David Baker, Administrator, Indianapolis Historic Preservation Commission; Dorothy Jones with the Business Operations Services, Inc. Community Development Corporation; Dr. Stanley Warren, Chair of the African-American Landmarks Committee of HLFI; and Spears’ own daughter Claudia Polley who assisted in her mother’s efforts, founded the National Association for African-American Heritage Preservation, Inc. and has since gone on to an international career in museum planning and management.

Ultimately, the case study is used as a theory-building exercise to draw some conclusions on how to infuse community development activities with a historic preservation consciousness, and to use an awareness of local history and culture (or what I call a preservation consciousness) as a tool for renewal – especially in severely distressed areas and in conditions of concentrated poverty.

We reflect upon the case in order to distill principles of good practice for an integrated approach to historic preservation and community development. This investigation is seen as being very timely because of the increasing popularity of the asset-based approach to community development which has, to date, failed to adequately consider the contribution of historic and cultural resources to promoting sustainable development in low-income communities.

To read the full thesis follow this link:

Integrating historic presevation and community development for renewal in areas of concentrated poverty : a case study of the Ransom Place Historic District in Indianapolis, Indiana / by Isaac David Kremer. 



Tuesday, July 17, 2012

All That is New Must Grow Old - Detroit's New Center


New Center some time after construction of the New Center Building (today the Albert Kahn Building) in 1931. 

Our attention turns to Detroit's “New Center.” Today this area is defined by several iconic buildings including the General Motors Building (1922), Fisher Building (1929), Albert Kahn Building (1931), Argonaut Building (1931) and others. While these building are the character defining features of what constitutes New Center today, there once was a finer-grained neighborhood with blocks teeming with residential and commercial uses.

How the neighborhood as it was gave way to the neighborhood as it is today is a story of considerable interest, with deep historical antecedents. Roots for Grand Boulevard go back even further to Native American paths meant to go around Fort Detroit that was once located where the Central Business District is today. Grand Boulevard when it was laid out was meant to designate the outermost extent of Detroit's city limits in the line nineteenth century. Grand Boulevard served much the same function defining an edge as the city walls in places like Paris, Athens, or Rome in Europe, or Charleston in the U.S. Whereas walls were a formidable obstacle and forced inhabitants to remain within their confines, a ring road was an invitation to push ever further outward. It should be no surprise that is precisely what happened.

The building that initiated this spread outward in many respects was Henry Ford's "Boulevard Building" constructed in 1910. Albert Kahn was the architect of this and so many other Ford buildings. An excellent article here explains the genesis and use of the building in more depth. The original three story building was constructed to provide service to Ford Motor Co. branch offices throughout Michigan. By 1913 another 5 stories were added to the original building. Detroit's 13th Annual Auto Show was held at the Boulevard Building in January 1914. An insensitive modernization program replaced the exterior with very bland window bands, making each floor appear pancaked upon one another. The building and some of its rich interiors are still there at the corner of Woodward and East Grand Boulevard.


Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, 1915, showing the Ford Motor Co. "Detroit Branch" (Vol. 10, Sheet 1)
What Henry Ford set into motion, it took others to fully develop. Those qualities that attracted Ford to this location in the first place - convenient access to downtown and factories, avoiding city taxes, and close proximity to exclusive Boston-Edison subdivision (where Henry Ford himself once lived) - provided a powerful inducement for other companies to locate in this area too.

The General Motors Building was constructed on a monumental scale in 1922 and is an internationally regarded architectural masterpiece. A mere 12 years after the Boulevard Building was completed, Albert Kahn was responsible for the design of the General Motors Building . At the time of its completion this was the second largest office building in the world after the Equitable Building in New York. Four identical wings off of a central spine allowed for ample light, ventilation, and views of the surrounding area. Public areas on the lower levels were spacious. The building also matched the corporate order with those with higher status on the uppermost floors and each division of the company seemingly occupying a designated wing of their own.

A somewhat lesser known story that comes along with the construction of the General Motors Building was the clearance of an entire block covered with several two to four story residential buildings. While the nature of these buildings and what efforts were required for the acquisition is beyond the scope of this article, surely a compelling story could be told about that. Instead, we simply share a massing study of the General Motors Building superimposed over the previous residential neighborhood.

General Motors Building superimposed over buildings that previously occupied the site.
General Motors Building, 1976 Detroit Urban Conservation Project
The General Motors Building dominated the landscape from every angle. One photo taken during the 1976 Detroit Urban Conservation Project shows the words "General Motors" seemingly hoovering in the background high atop the building. Another photo from the same project, has cars lined up in a row in front of the building demonstrating the domination of cars over the landscape.

The Fisher Building was another notable building that helped to give New Center another anchor and its unique identity. The Fisher brothers commissioned Albert Kahn in 1927 to design the world's finest office building. He responded with a lavishly decorated twenty-six-story tower with elegant setbacks, a three-thousand seat theater, and an eleven-story parking garage attached to the rear. Also proposed was an identical building across the street with a central tower more than twice the height of the flanking towers. This design was regrettably shelved by the Great Depression (Gallagher and Hill, 2002).

The Argonaut Building was another Albert Kahn design from 1930. Just eight short years after the General Motors Building was constructed, new space was needed for research and development. Unlike other buildings in the New Center, the inside areas were functional and lacked much ornamentation at all. The exterior with its masonry banding and brickwork created a strong architectural effect.

One final notable addition to the New Center was Kahn's New Center Building in 1931. This was constructed with materials left over from the Fisher Building project. The AIA Guide to Detroit Architecture claims that the "in some respects the architecture here is more consistent and original." The window head designs are cited as an example. In looking at the Fisher Building and New Center Building side-by-side it is both hard and easy to compare them at the same time. Hard because the two buildings are of a dramatically different scale. Easy because the New Center Building can be seen as a continuation of earlier designs begun with the Fisher.

What can be said of all the primary buildings we've described in the core of the New Center area is that they fundamentally served to transform this once residential area into a formidable center for business where leading firms had equally grand architecture suited to their status. Were this pattern to have continued, it might have been possible for the New Center to eclipse the downtown. What happened instead is that development spread ever further outward from the city center. Ford Motor Company moved their headquarters to the suburbs just south of Detroit in Dearborn. The Southfield Town Center - a cluster of five interconnected skyscrapers with 2.2 million square feet in total was built between 1975 and 1989. The construction of this complex is perhaps another topic for another day. What should be said, however, is that the roots for the Southfield Town Center and other projects like it may be found in Detroit's New Center.

Postcard around 1930 with the areas dedicated to parking in green.

View from Google Earth roughly approximating the area of the 1930's postcard. Interestingly, Google Earth has yet to render the Fisher Building in three dimensions. 

Areas in red show buildings demolished between roughly 1930 and today.

Areas in orange show areas that have been set aside for parking.
  
Demolition of buildings and expansion of areas for parking fundamentally altered the character of the New Center area.
The New Center area had perhaps its greatest cohesion and integrity just after the Albert Kahn Building was completed in 1931. At that time there were many architectural masterpieces surrounded by an area still mostly with residential character. The possibility to live and work here at that time was very great. Increasing reliance on the automobile (thanks at least in part to the Ford Motor Company and General Motors which had a presence here) made proximity of work and home less important. Whereas in the 1930's less than one city block was dedicated for surface parking, by around 2010 well over six full blocks were dedicated for parking. When you consider how the Fisher Building, General Motors Building, and New Center Building occupied approximately 2 to 3 city blocks total, the area just used for parking today could easily double or triple the size of the New Center. This over reliance on automobiles and providing such ample area for parking, had a dampening effect on other nearby residential areas such as Boston Edison. Today a committed neighborhood association and residents struggle to maintain and protect that grand residences that once were home to Albert Kahn, Henry Ford, and numerous automotive company executives.

One result of creating such density in New Center and not requiring or providing for suitable places nearby for those who worked in this area to live, made New Center a less viable or desirable place compared to outlying complexes like the Southfield Town Center. Then when you consider the sheer number of buildings lost to make way for additional parking in the New Center area, this further served to cut this area off from surrounding residential neighborhoods, making it difficult for New Center and these neighborhoods to function the way they once did. It is unclear whether the sort of corrective surgery will ever happen that is needed to return this neighborhood to its former character. When creating visions for the future of New Center it may be wise to look to the past for guidance. The sort of neighborhood that existed here in the 1930's is precisely what New Urbanists and urban planners dream to create today.

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Detroit's Lost Moonlight Towers are Austin's Gain

Postcard showing Moonlight Tower (to left) on Woodward Ave. near Adelaide in downtown Detroit.

At first this seemed like another interesting postcard of a long-lost Detroit streetscape. Upon closer inspection, however, there was a remarkable feature. Near the left edge is a latticed tower rising through and beyond the upper edge of the postcard. Until just a few months ago I would have had no idea what that structure was, and write it off as some kind of utility tower or something. It was not until moving to Austin, Texas, a few months back that I became wise to what this tower was and is - the Moonlight Tower.

The large building in the center with tower and slated spire was the Woodward Avenue Baptist Church located at the southeast corner of Winder and Woodward. On the extreme right side of the postcard are the stairs of the Woodward Avenue Congregational Church projecting into the postcard frame. The handsome four story building on the right side of the postcard is the Burnstine Block. All three of these buildings have been demolished. Perhaps the only still surviving building on this postcard is the St. John's Episcopal Church. This church still stands immediately south of Interstate 75 and adjacent to the Comerica Park Major League Baseball stadium.

1897 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map with highlighted area showing view  included in postcard.

The tradition of putting lights atop towers, mostly to serve for enhanced security and public safety, is a tradition that had origins in Europe though which spread to the United States as well. Some even speculate that the Eiffel Tower at one point had lights installed to illuminate the surrounding area. The Jenney Electric Company developed this type of lighting in the early 1880's and by the 1890's had installed moonlight towers in Albany, Detroit, Grand Rapids, Little Rock, and Philadelphia (City of Austin). At one time "Detroit was the only large city in the US (and in the world) lighted wholly and exclusively by the tower system." At the peak of the system there were 122 towers with a height of between 100 and 180 feet lighting over 21 square miles of the city. These towers were first installed in Detroit the 1880's and remained in use until the 1910's. The growth of ever taller buildings spelled the demise for the Moontower system in Detroit and other places. 


In 1894, the City of Austin purchased 31 used Moonlight Towers from Detroit. Some claim that the towers were acquired and installed as a result of the brutal acts of the Servant Girl Annihilator - an unknown serial killer who preyed upon people in the City of Austin between 1884 to 1885. This story doesn't completely jibe though, because the towers were installed ten years after the murders occurred.
Moonlight Tower in Austin, at southeast corner of Guadalupe and West 9th Street (Photo by author).

Moonlight Tower in Austin at northeast corner of Canterbury and Lynn Street (Photo by author).

In 1970 the towers were recognized as State Landmarks. In 1974 the remaining towers were named a City of Austin Historic Landmark. Finally, in 1976 they were listed in the National Register of Historic Places. A comprehensive rehabilitation project was undertaken by the City of Austin in 1993 to restore the towers and their working components at a total cost of $1.3 million. Today Austin is the only city in the world known to still operate moonlight towers. The quality of light is similar to a bright, full moon, hence the popular nickname, moonlight towers. Each moon tower has approximately 12,600-13,200 candle power. At the peak there were 31 Moonlight Towers operating in Austin. Today only 17 of these towers are still standing. 
  • Leland St. and Eastside Dr (NE corner)
  • Monroe St. and S. 1st S (SW corner)
  • West 4th and Nuece (SW corner)
  • West 9th and Guadalupe St (SE corner)
  • W. 12th St. and Blanco St (SE corner)
  • W. 12th St. and Rio Grande St (NW corner)
  • W. 15th St. and San Antonio St (SW corner)
  • W. 22nd St. and Nueces St (SW corner)
  • W. 41st St. and Speedway St (SW corner)
  • Zilker Park (used for Zilker Park Christmas Tree)*
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. and Chicon St (SE corner)
  • E. 13th St. and Coleto St (NE corner)
  • Pennsylvania Ave. and Leona St (NE corner)
  • E. 11th St. and Trinity St (SE corner)
  • E. 11th St. and Lydia St (SW corner)
  • E. Cesar Chavez and Trinity St. (SW corner)
  • Canterbury St. and Lynn St. (NE corner)
Have photos of Moonlight Towers in Austin or in other places? Share it with us on our Facebook page.

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

David Whitney Building - Detroit and Starwood's Next Big Preservation Win?



Now our attention shifts to the somewhat maligned David Whitney Building in downtown Detroit. The way this postcard with a postmark from Saginaw, Michigan in August 1920 put it: 
Woodward Avenue enjoys the unusual distinction of being both Detroit's leading business and residence street. It is named in honor of Judge Woodward, one of Detroit's foremost citizens in the pioneer days, and stretches approximately north and south. At the foot are the ferry docks where boats leave regularly for Windsor, Int., Belle Isle and Bois Blanc Islands. 
Oddly, the inscription on the reverse said little to nothing about the David Whitney building itself, except by inference to say that this building was located on Woodward Avenue that was Detroit's leading business and residence street. Where this statement takes on an added level of interest, is that the home of David Whitney, Jr. was located at 4421 Woodward Avenue just 1.3 miles north of the David Whitney Building . Built by Gordon W. Lloyd in 1894, this is among the most lavish of the surviving Detroit residences from the nineteenth-century. The cost was $400,000 at the time (or roughly $10.5 million in today's dollars). David Whitney, Jr. was a prosperous lumber baron and steamship owner. No expense was spared in design and furnishing of this lavish house. The more than forty rooms are filled with Tiffany stained-glass windows, marble, onyx, and, of course, ample hand-carved woodwork. David Whitney, Jr. died in 1900, though his family remained in the house until 1920. In 1986 the building was renovated to become an upscale restaurant that was very popular for many years.

The David Whitney Building, constructed nearly two decades after the house, was built by D. H. Burnham and Co. of Chicago in 1915. This was one of several Detroit commissions of theirs including the Majestic Building (now demolished) and the Dime Building. This building was actually completed after Daniel Burnham's death, though along with the two others comprises one of the nation's best stocks of Burnham skyscrapers (Gallagher and Hill, 2003, p.68). For more about these two other Burnham buildings, read this blog post. The David Whitney Building was constructed as architects were still struggling how to properly articulate massive skyscrapers. Italian Renaissance details were chosen to mark the exterior. 

Together the David Whitney Building and the David Broderick Building across Woodward Avenue marked an official "entrance" to the business district downtown. The "two David's" as they have sometimes been called, clearly marked a line of demarcation between the business area to the south and the commercial area to the north with a more residential character, exemplified by the David Whitney, Jr. House.

In designing the David Whitney Building, the architects conformed to the odd size of the block facing Grand Circus Park and wedged in between Woodward Avenue and Washington Boulevard, with a six-sided building. The interior has what is perhaps one of Burnham's best interiors, formed by four floors of shops encircling a large rotunda space under a polygonal light court (Chappell, 1992, p.115). The cost of the David Whitney Building at the time of its construction was $1,528,543.

Regrettably, the original facade of the David Whitney Building was renovated in 1959, when decorative cornices and other architectural details were removed, and the building given a more modern look.


David Whitney Building and Statler Hotel, some time prior to 1923 (postmark)

Skyline from Grand Circus Park, some time before 1929 (postmark)
Grand Circus Park, Eaton Tower, Whitney Building, Book Tower, and Hotel Statler, ca. 1928 (postmark) 
David Whitney Building (on far left), Statler Hotel, Hotel Tuller.

Grand Circus Park with David Whitney Building to left, ca. 1942 (postmark)

David Whitney Building in September 2001.
David Whitney Building in September 2001.
David Whitney Building (center) while demolition of Statler Hotel was underway in June 2005.
David Whitney Building, just prior to the All-Star Game in July 2005.
David Whitney Building (to left) as demolition of Statler Hotel nears completion in September 2005.

Preservation work is already underway on the 34 story David Broderick Tower, just across the street. As Model D reported in February 2011, the Detroit Downtown Development Authority provided a loan to cover about a third of the buildings $3.3 million purchase cost of the David Whitney Building. At that time they projected financing by the end of 2011 and completion by 2012.

As most development plans go, there was a slight delay. In December 2011 it was announced that Starwood Hotels & Resorts joined the project, with plans to build their first Aloft hotel in Michigan. Plans are being made to retain the lobby, and to also reinstate the architectural features that were removed after the insensitive renovation in 1959. This is only the second adaptive reuse project in the U.S., and their are plans to seek LEED certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. Another Starwood adaptive reuse project was later announced in Orlando, indicating that this is a growing emphasis for their franchise

The Grand Circus Park area has experienced a great resurgence with opening of the Detroit Opera House in 1996, followed by restoration of the Kales Building (originally the Kresge Company Headquarters) several years later. With work underway on the Broderick Tower and work about to begin on the David Whitney Building, there will very soon be no vacant buildings facing Grand Circus Park.

Were the Statler Hotel and Tuller Hotel still standing, it might have been possible that they too could have been swept up in the wave of redevelopment happening on Grand Circus Park. Instead they are vacant lots awaiting some uncertain future use. In their absence they provide powerful evidence that preservation of existing building is oftentimes a more viable strategy for downtown revitalization, rather than demolishing historic buildings and awaiting new development which almost never happens without far deeper subsidies than preservation requires.

The rehabilitation of the "two David's" standing side-by-side on Woodward Avenue, holds great potential for the ongoing revitalization of downtown Detroit. As someone who has been away for many years though still considers Detroit home, I look to the revitalization of these buildings and the downtown with great excitement. Downtown Detroit appears to be realizing the potential that so many of us have seen for so long. Hopefully these exciting developments will embolden efforts to restore some of the few remaining vacant historic buildings downtown.

Saturday, July 7, 2012

Radical Surgery to the "Heart of Detroit"

Bird's Eye View, showing the Heart of Detroit, Mich.
Next our attention turns to what one postcard calls the "Heart of Detroit." In this shot three primary buildings are shown - the Dime Building, Old City Hall, and the Majestic Building. The Old City Hall and Majestic Building are facing Woodward Avenue which is shown stretching northward several blocks. Both the Majestic Building and the Dime Building were designed by noted architect Daniel Burnham.

The Majestic Building was one of Detroit's first skyscrapers (Hill and Gallagher, 2003). This building was later demolished and replaced by the First Federal Bank Building at 1001 Woodward Ave, designed by Smith, Hinchman, and Grylls in 1965. The Dime Building was designed by Daniel Burnham as his second office tower in Detroit following the Majestic. This building has Classical detailing in greater evidence than in the Ford Building just down the street. In 2001 the building was renovated by Barton Malow Design.

1897 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map.

Perhaps the most impressive building in this composition was the Old City Hall built in 1871. Architect James Anderson originally completed plans for the building in 1861, though work was delayed due to material shortages during the Civil War. The building incorporated elements of the Italian Renaissance and Second Empire styles. Stylistically the building has peers in the Philadlphia City Hall designed by John MCarthur, Jr. and constructed from 1871 to 1901. Both the Detroit and Philadelphia City Hall buildings hearken back to the far older and understated New York City Hall constructed between 1810 and 1812. 

Julius Melchers received a commission through art patron Bela Hubbard in 1874 to produce sculptures of Marquette, LaSalle, Cadillac, and Richard to be placed on this noted monument. Architect John M. Donaldson served as model for the Marquette sculpture. As an aside, Donaldson designed Melcher’s house, so using Donaldson showed the obvious affection and friendship between Donaldson and Melcher. Rescued from their niches when City hall was demolished in 1960-1961 and later placed in storage, these sculptures were reinstalled several years later in a park like setting on the campus of Wayne State University in 1974. The Old City Hall was demolished in 1961 and replaced by an underground 460 space, 69,000 square foot parking garage and a relatively barren above ground park named Kennedy Park in honor of the former U.S. President John Fitzgerald Kennedy. In 2005 this site further grew and evolved when construction for One Kennedy Square began. The glass box was built to house the accounting firm Ernst and Young. This contemporary structure pales in comparison to the civic masterpiece which once stood here.

The old Post Office is one other old Detroit building, no longer present, the tower of which is seen peeking out from behind the Dime Building. Built between 1891-1897 in a Richardson Romanesque style with large central tower reminiscent of Richardson's Allegheny County Courthouse in Pittsburgh. The building had several ornamental bas-relief sculptural groupings by Detroit sculptor Corrado Parducci. Later this monumental building was demolished and replaced by the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse in the Art Deco style. The Chief Judge's courtroom on the 7th floor was one feature retained and carried over from the older building that was demolished to the new building. 

Post Office, Detroit, Michigan
What is perhaps most impressive when considering these building that once constituted the "Heart of Detroit" and how they fared through the years is the fact that over 90% of the buildings present and standing in 1921 are no longer standing today. Today there are a few exceptions like the Dime Building, the Book Cadillac Hotel, and the Detroit Club which still remaining standing. For each of these that remain, dozens of others have been lost.

1921 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map with demolitions between 1922 and 2012 highlighted in red.

1921 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map

1999 Aerial Map (Google Earth)

2002 Aerial Map (Google Earth)

2006 Aerial Map (Google Maps)

2007 Aerial Map (Google Maps)

2010 Aerial Map (Google Maps)

Townsend Homestead, 20 West Main Street, Oyster Bay


Front and reverse of postcard showing Raynham Hall Museum, postmark date 1942.

Postcard ca. 1942 showing the Townsend Homestead at 20 West Main St in Oyster Bay, New York. The original Colonial era main mass had a saltbox form.Successive generations of Townsend family members added towers to the front and side, as well as a substantial addition to the rear. In the 1950's the front of the building was brought back to its ca. 1740 appearance, while retaining Victorian era additions to the rear.


Raynham Hall Museum following the restoration. Note the absence of  the pent roof over the entrance door. This would have been added some time after the "restoration."



Raynham Hall Museum following restoration.

1833 Underhill map.

1914 Map showing "E.N. Townsend Jr."

1922 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map

1928 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map

1941 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map